environs after night-fall. Information as to the safety of the Cam¬
pagna is, also not to be despised, as a few cases of robbery have
lately occurred there. Brigandage proper is, however, a danger only
for the rich occupants of retiTed farms. In the towns the Guardie
or policernen, and in the country the Carabinieri, or gensdarmes
(who wear a black uniform, with red facings, and cocked hats),
will be found thoroughly respectable and trustworthy.
Weapons cannot legally be carried without a licence. Those of
a secret character, such as sword-sticks and stick-guns, are entirely
prohibited, and the bearer is liahle to imprisonment without the
option of a fine.
Begging, which is most prevalent at the church-doors, has re-
cently increased in frequency in the streets of Rome. The travel¬
ler should decline to give anything, with the words, 'non c'è niente',
or a gesture of disapprovai. If a donation be bestowed, it should
consist of one of the smallest possible copper coins (2, or at most
5 e.), and should only be given to the obviously needy or decrepit.
The foolish practice of 'scattering' copper coins to he struggled for
by the street-arabs is highly rèprehensible, and, like most idle gratu¬
ities to children, has a demoralizing effect upon the recipients.
Railways. The remarks made in the first volume of the Hand¬
book are also applicable to the railways of Central Italy. The rate
of travelling is very moderate, and the trains are often behind time.
The first-class carriages are tolerably comfortable, the second are
inferior to those of the German railways, and resemble the Eng¬
lish and French,, while the third class is chiefly frequented by the
lower orders. Smoking compartments are labelled 'pei fumatori',
those for non-smokers 'è vietato di fumare'. Among the expressions
with which the railway-traveller will soon become familiar are —
'pronti (ready), 'partenza' (departure), 'fermata' (halt), 'si cambia
treno' (change carriages), and 'uscita' (egress), which are shouted
by the officials with characteristic vigour. The station-master is
called 'capo stazione'.
"When about to start from a crowded station, the traveller^ will
flnd it convenient to have as nearly as possible the exact fare ready
before taking tickets ('fare il biglietto'). 'Mistakes' are far from uu-
common on the part of the ticket-clerks or of the officials [who weigh
luggage. In addition to the fare a tax of 5 e. is payable on each
t The best (though far from perfect) collections of time-tables etc. are
the 'Indicatore Ufficiale delle Strade Ferrate'1 (published monthly by the
Fratelli Pozzo at Turin; price 1 fr.) and the Orario delfMovimento Treni e
Piroscafi (published by Arnobaldi at Florence ; 1 fr.). The ordinary tourist
will probably flnd the smaller editions (50e. and 20c. respectively) suffi-
cient for his purposes. — Ali these may be obtained at the stations or