The fewest words are the best; and travellers will flnd that cairn
preparations to go elsewhere will reduce obstinate hagglers to reason
much more quickly than a war of words. In Rome and the larger
towns of Tuscany the traveller will now meet comparatively few causes
for complaint, and even in smaller places he will find a little tact
and good-temper ali that is necessary to avoid disputes. Prudence
is useful at ali times in Italy ; but an exaggerated mistrust is some¬
times resented as an insult, and sometimes taken to indicate weak-
ness and t^midity.
Gratuities. In public collections, where a charge for admission
is made, the keepers (custodi) are forbidden to accept gratuities. But
as a general rule, there is no other country where one has to give so
many gratuities as in Italy, or where such small sums are sufficient.
The traveller, therefore, should always be provided with an abund-
ant supply of copper coins. Drivers, guides, porters, donkey-attend-
ants, etc, invariably expect, and often demand as their right a gratu-
ity (buona mano, mancia, da bere, caffè, sigaro), in addition to the
hire agreed on, varying according to circumstances from 10-15 e. to
a frane or more. The traveller need not scruple to limit his dona-
tions to the smallest possible sums. The gratuities suggested in
this Handbook are on a sufficiently liberal scale ; some, however, will
of course give more, while the traveller of modest claims will flnd
perhaps two-thirds or even less enough. The following scale will be
found useful by the average tourist. In private collections a single
visitor should bestow a gratuity of ife fr., 2-3 pers. %, 4 pers. 1 ir.
For repeated visits half these sums. For opening a church-door, etc.
10-20 e. is enough, but if extra services are rendered(e.j. uncovering
an altar-piece, lighting candles, etc), from !/3to 1 fr. may be given.
In hotels and restaurants ahout 5-10% of the reckoning should
be given in gratuities, or less if service is charged for. In restau¬
rants where 'service' and 'couvert' appear on the bill, no fee at ali
should be given.
Valets de Place (Guide, sing. la Ouìda) may be hired at 5-7 fr.
per day. The most trust worthy are those attached to the chief hotels.
In some towns the better guides have formed societies as 'Guide
patentate'. Their services may generally well be dispensed with by
those who are not pressed for time. Purchases should neverbemade,
nor contraets with vetturini or other persons drawn up, in presence
or with the aid of a commissionaire, as any such intervention tends
considerably to increase the prices.
M. Public Safety. Segging.
Notwithstanding recent newspaper reports of robberies, travell¬
ing in Northern and Central Italy is scarcely attended with greater
hazard than in any of the northern European countries. The traveller
should, of course, avoid the less frequented parts of Rome and its