realise their nominai value. A moderate supply of FrenchOold may
prove useful. Sovereigns are almost everywhere received as the equi-
valent of 25 fr., and sometimes a little more. Besides Silver and
small notes, l-l^fr. in copper should also be carried in a separate
pocket or pouch (comp. p. xii).
The time and labour which the traveller has bestowed on the
study of Italian at home will be «mply repaid as he proceeds on his
journey. It is quite possible for persons entirely ignorant of Italian
and French to travel through Italy with tolerable comfort ; but such
travellers cannot conveniently deviate from the ordinary track, and
are moreover invariably made to pay 'alla Inglese' by hotel-keepers
and others, i. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. French
is very useful, and it may suffice for Rome ; but for those who desire
the utmost possible freedom, combined with the lowest possible ex-
penditure, a slight acquaintance with the language of the country is
indispensable. + — Those who spend any time in Rome are recom-
mended to take Italian lessons ; teachers may be heard of at the book-
III. Passports. Custom House. Luggage.
Passports, though not required in Italy except for receiving re-
mittances of money and registered letters at a poste restante (p. xxi),
are always convenient. The countenance and help of the British
and American consuls can, of course, be extended to those persons
only who can prove their nationality.
Foreign Office passports may be obtained in London through E. Stan¬
ford, 26 Cockspur Street, Charing Cross, W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet Street, or
Lee and Carter, 440 West Strand.
Custom House. The examination of luggage at the Italian
custom-houses is usually lenient. Tobacco and cigars (only six pass
free) are the articles chiefly sought for. The customs-receipts should
be preserved, as they are sometimes asked for even in the interior.
Luggage. As a rule it is advisable, and often in the end less
expensive, never to part from one's luggage, and to superintend the
custom-house examination in person. If the traveller is obliged to
t 'Baedeker''s Manual of Conversation in English, French, Qerman, and
Italian, with Vocabulary, eie.' (StereotypeEdit., Baedeker, Leipsic), which is
specially adapted for the use of travellers, with the addition of Baedeker'*
Conversation Dictionary (in the game four languages ; Leipsic, 1889 ; price
3 marks), will soon enable the beginner to make himself understood. —
A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons unac-
quainted with the language. C before e and i is pronounced like the
English eh; g before e and i like j. Before other vowels e and g are
hard. Ch and gli, which generally precede e or i, are hard. Se before e
or i is pronounced like sh ; gn and gì hetween vowels like nyi and lyi.
The vowels a, e. i, o, u are prononneed ah, a, ee, o, oo. — In ad-
dres-ing persons of the educated classes 'Lei', with the 3rd pers. sing.,
should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with the 3rd
pers. pi.). 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters, drivers. etc.