xxiv XL .MÀï-è:•<
32°. It may easily be remembered that 5° Centigrade = 4° Réaumur
= 9° Fahrenheit, to which last 32° must be added for tempéra¬
tures above freezing. For températures below freezing the number
of degrees obtained by converting those of Centigrade or Réaumur
into those of Fahrenheit must be subtracted from 32. Thus 5 C
= 4° R. = 9 + 32 = 41° F. ; 20° C = 16° R. = 36 + 32 = 68 F.
Again , - 5° C = - 4" R. = 32 - 9 = 23° F.; - 20 C = -
16° R. = 32 - 36 = - 4° F.
The best maps of France hâve hitherto been the Cartes de VEtat-
Major, or Ordnance Maps of the War Office. One séries of thèse is
on a scale of 1:80,000, and includes 273 sheets, each 2l/g ft. long and
1 i/t ft. wide, while another, reduced from the above, is on a scale of
1:320,000 and consists of 33 sheets (1 for 16 of the others) or 27
for France proper. Thèse may be had either engraved on Steel (2 fr.
per sheet) or lithographed (50 c). The engraved maps are con-
siderably clearer in the mountainous régions, but the lithographs
are good enough for ordinary use. Since 1889 the larger scale map
has also been issued in quarter sheets (1 fr. engraved; 30 c. litho¬
graphed), intended ultimately to supersede the larger sheets.
The War Office has undertaken two new séries of maps, printed
in flve colours ; one on a scale of 1: 50,000, and one on a scale of
1 : 200,000. The larger of thèse has not been published except for
a part of the N.E. provinces, but the smaller scale map is already
well advanced. The price of each sheet is l*/a fr.
There is also another map in flve colours (1:100,000), published
in 1881-1894 by the Ministry of the Interior (85 c. per sheet) ; and
yet another (1 : 200,000) is now in course of publication by the
Ministry of Public Works, and is sold in sheets at 40 c each.
The Spanish slope of the Pyrénées is not included in the maps
of the Etat-Major, but is given in the map of the Ministry of In¬
terior (1:100,000; see above) and in that of the Dépôt des Fortifi¬
AH thèse maps may be obtained in the chief tourist-resorts, but it is
advisable to procure them in advance. The following shops in Paris hâve
always a full supply on hand: Lanée, Rue de la Paix 8; Andriveau-Ooujon,
Rue du Bac 4; Dumaine (Baudoin), Rue et Passage Dauphine 30, etc.
The catalogue of the Service Géographique de l'Armée (1 fr.) con-
tains key-plans of its maps, inciuding also those of Algeria, Tunis, and
Africa generally (parts sold separately 10 c, Algeria and Tunis 25 c).
Barrereseatalogue (Sratis) has key-plans of the 1:80,000, 1:200,000, and
1:320,000 maps ; and key-plans of the 1:100,000 map may be obtained
at Hachettes, Boulevard St. Germain 79; and of the Public Works map
(1 :200,000) at the Librairie Delagrave, Rue Soufflot 15.