passport may be obtained at the Foreign Office, from 11 to 4 (fee 2».),
on previous written application, supported by a clergyman, banker,
magistrate, or justice of the peace. Application for passports may
be made to W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet Street; Lee and Carter, 440 W.
Strand ; C. Smith & Son, 63 Charing Cross ; or E. Stanford, 26 Cock-
spur Street, Charing Cross (charge 2s., agent's fee ls. 6<i.).
Sketching, photographing, or making notes near fortified places
sometimes exposes innocent travellers to disagreeable suspicions or
worse, and should therefore be avoided.
Custom House. In order to prevent the risk of unpleasant dé¬
tention at the 'douane' or custom-house, travellers are strongly re-
commended to avoid carrying with them any articles that are not
absolutely necessary. Cigars and tobacco are chiefly sought for by
the custom-house offlcers. The duty on the former amounts to about
16s., on the latter to 7-1 ls. per lb. Articles liable to duty should
always be 'declared'. Books and newspapers occasionally give rise to
suspicion and may in certain cases be conflscated. The examination
of luggage generally takes place at the frontier-stations, and travellers
should superintend it in person. Luggage registered to Paris is
examined on arrivai there.
Octroi. At the entrance to the larger towns an 'Octroi', or muni¬
cipal tax, is levied on ail comestibles, but travellers' luggage is usu-
ally passed on a simple déclaration that it contains no such articles.
The officiais are, however, entitled to see the receipts for articles
liable to duty at the frontier.
V. Kailways. Diligences. Carriages.
The network of railways by which France is now overspread con-
sists of Unes of an aggregate length of 20,300 M., belonging to the
Government, to six large companies, and to a large number of small-
er ones. The districts treated in this Handbook are served mainly
by the Unes of the Orléans, Midi, and Paris - Lyon - Méditerranée
railways, and to a smaller extent by the Government Unes (Réseau
The fares per English mile are approximately : Ist cl. 18 c.
2nd cl. 12 c., 3rd cl. 8c, to which a tax of ten per cent on each
ticket costing more than 10 fr. is added. The mail trains ('trains
rapides') generally convey flrst-class passengers only, and the express
trains ('trains express') flrst-class and second-class only. The flrst-
class carriages are good, but the second-class are inferior to those in
most other parts of Europe and the third-class are rarely furnished
with cushioned seats. The trains are generally provided with smoking
carriages, and in the others smoking is allowed unless any one of
the passengers objects. Ladies' compartments are also provided
The trains invariably pass each other on the left, so that the traveller
can always tell which side of a station his train starts from. The