to the 7th century. About the year 610 the Abbot Colttmban.
having been banished from Burgundy, settled at Preyentia (Bre-
genz) on the Lake of Constance, from which he sent forth his pupil
Gallus to found the afterwards celebrated Abbey of St. Gullen, and
a little later the monastery of Sackingen on the Rhine was founded
by the Irish monk Fridolin.
No trace of any of these works, however, is now extant, most
of them, it is believed, having been constructed of wood. The
same remark applies to the buildings erected under the descendants
of Pepin, after the fall of the Merovingians. The best developed
of all these establishments was that of St. Gallen, which embraced
dwellings for artizans , a hospital, and a school, and a residen e
for the abbot styled the Palatium. The church was entirely built
of stone, and was one of the earliest which possessed a crypt. At
Strassburg and in the neighbourhood Duke Ethiko I. and his son
Adelbert were the authors of several important undertakings. They
erected the castle of Hohenburg (Odilienburg) on the Vosges, to
the S.W. of Strassburg, on the site of a Roman fort, and converted
it into a nunnery, and they founded the monasteries of Niedermun-
ster, Ebersheim - Miinster, and Masmiinster in the environs, and
the nunnery of St. Stephen in the town. Coeval with these , and in
the same diocese, were the monasteries of Honau, Ettenheimmiin-
ster , Surbury , Sclararzach, iXeuweiler, Leberau , St. Hippolyte,
Murbach, and, farther S. . that of Reichenau in the Zellersee , the
most important of all. At Mayence the 8th century produced the
churches of St. Martin (afterwards the cathedral), St. Lambert,
St. Victor. St. Alban, and St. Peter, and the monastery of St. Nico-
mede, and within the same diocese the Abbey of Lorsch was founded
by Count Cancor in 763 and afterwards extended in the reign of
Charlemagne. In the diocese of Treves the abbeys of Priim and
Kesslingen were founded by Pepin HI. and his consort Bertrada
about 762, and at Cologne the church of St. Martin Major by
Pepin of Heristal and his wife Plectrudis about the same period. To
the latter is also attributed the nunnery of St. Maria in Capitolio.
which probably occupied the site of the Roman pratorium (Capitol)
and the subsequent Franconian palace. To this epoch belong like'
wise the monasteries of Kniserswerth and St. Marten at Emmerich.
founded by the Irish missionaries Suitbert and Willebrord.
These structures were probably for the most part architecturally
insignificant, and therefore incapable of transmitting substantial
memorials to posterity. Bishop Nicetius of Treves alone appears to
have employed skilled architects, whom, as already mentioned he
procured from Italy. His example was not followed until a later
period, when Charlemagne , after having received the imperial
crown at Cologne in the year 800 , strove to rebuild the ancient
glory of the empire on Christian foundations, and, being a muni¬
ficent patron of art and science, became the inaugurator of a new