endeavour to adapt his requirements to the habits of the country.
For this purpose Baedeker's Manual of Conversation will be found
Valets-de-place generally charge 1 florin or 20 Sgr. for half
a day, and 1 — li/2 Thlr. for a whole day.
VIII. Geology of the Rhine.
For Geologists the maps of the Rhenish Province and Westphalia by
■/•on Dechen (Berlin, pub. by Schropp) are of great value. They are ad¬
mirably executed after the Prussian Ordnance maps, on the scale of 1:
80,000. The series is now complete in 34 sections, price 1 Thlr. each
From Bale to Bingen the valley of the Rhine is lake-like and
filled with comparatively recent deposits, but at the latter place it
suddenly changes its character, and becomes so narrow that room is
barely left for the high-roads and railways which traverse it. The
river flows swiftly between almost perpendicular rocks of consider¬
able height, intersected here and there by ravines. Towards Coblenz
the valley gradually expands, the hills become less abrupt, and the
rocks disappear. From Coblenz to Andernach a broad basin extends
on both sides of the stream, which at the latter again enters a rocky
defile. Near Bonn the river gradually widens, and the 'Seven
Mountains' appear, forming the grand closing scene of the picturesque
portion of the Rhine. This chain of mountains, in diminished pro¬
portions, accompanies the Rhine on its right bank as far as Cologne,
Diisseldorf, and nearly to Duisburg. Below the mouth of the Ruhr
the country is uniformly flat.
Between Bingen and Bonn the Rhine Valley thus intersects
an extensive range of high land, consisting of upheaved and
contorted strata of slatey-yrauwacke and quartzose-rock, one of the
oldest formations in which fossils are found. Since the fossili-
ferous strata have been more accurately classified, the Rhenish
slate mountains are believed to hold the second place according
to age among these formations , belonging to what is termed by
Sir Roderick Murchison the Devonian System, while the oldest for¬
mation of this class is known as the Silurian.
From Bingen to the confluence of the Sieg below Bonn, all the
strata intersected by the Rhine belong to the same epoch as they
contain the same organic remains. These strata consist of many
different kinds of clay-slate, the purest of which is the roofing-slate.
The latter is yielded in great abundance by various quarries on the
banks of the Rhine, e. g. those of Caub (p. 76), whence it is sent
in all directions, even as far as Switzerland. The clav-slate forms
transitions to the species of sandstone termed yrauwacke It is
generally fine-grained, and in combination with' a quartzose ce¬
menting matter passes into quartzose-rock, which owin°- to it" inde¬
structibility often assumes grotesque shapes, and between Bingen
and St. Goar greatly enhances the beauty of the valley
Between the period when the Rhine first began to f