population of 8,957,690 to at least thirty, if not iorty millions
of inhabitants, without inconverience.
The effects of this influx of population in increasing the
pecuniary wealth, as well as the agricultural products of the
States in question, are signally manifest in the census. The
assessed value of their real and personal property, ascended from
$1,116,000,000 in 1850, to $3,926,000,000 in 1860, showing a
clear increase of $2,810,000,000. We can best measure this
rapid and enormous accession of wealth, by comparing it with
an objest which all nations value—the commercial marine. The
commercial tonnage of the United States,
In 1840, was 2,180,764 tons.
" 1850, " 3,535,454 "
" 1860, " 5,358,808 "
At $50 per ton, which is a full estimate, the whole pecuniary
value of the 5,358,808 tons, embracing all our commercial fleet9
on the oceans and the lakes and the rivers, and numbering
nearly thirty thousand vessels, would be but $267,940,000;
whereas the increase in the pecuniary value of the States under
consideration, in each year of the last decade, was $281,000,000.
Five years increase would purchase every commercial vessel in
the Christian world.
But the census discloses another very important feature in
respect to these interior States, of far higher interest to the
statisticians, and especially to the statesmen of Europe, than
any wliich has yet been noticed, in their vast and rapidly in¬
creasing capacity to supply food, both vegetable and animal,
cheaply and abundantly, to the increasing millions of the Old
World. In the last decade, their cereal products increased
from 309,950,295 bushels to 558,160,323 bushels, considerably
exceeding the whole cereal product of England, and nearly, if
not quite equal, to that of France. In the same period the