that the quantity surveyed and ready for sale, in September,
1862, was 135,142,999 acres. The Report also states, that the
recent discoveries of rich and extensive gold fields in some of the
unsurveyed portions, are rapidly filling the interior with a popu¬
lation whose necessities require the speedy survey and disposi¬
tion of large additional tracts. The immediate survey is not
however, of vital importance, as the first occupant practically
gains the pre-emptive claim to the land after the survey is com¬
pleted. The cardinal, the great continental fact, so to speak, is
this, that the whole of this vast body of land is freely open to
gratuitous occupation, without delay or difficulty of any kind.
II. The population of the United States, as shown by the
Census of 1860, was 31,445,0S0, of which number 26,975,575
were white, and 4,441,766 black, of various degrees of color—of
the blacks 3,953,760 being returned as slaves. Whether any, oi
what proportion, of the number are hereafter to be statistically
considered as " Slaves" depends upon contingencies, which it
would be premature at the present time to discuss.
The increase of population since the establishment of the
Government, has been as follows :
3 800, 5,305,937 ........ increase 35.02 per cent.
1810, 7,239,814 ........ " 36.45 "
1820, 9,638,191 ........ " 33.13 "
1830, 12,806,020 ........ " 33.49 "
1840, 17,069,453 ........ " 32.67 "
1850, 23,191,876 ........ " 35.87 "
I860, 31,445,080 ........ " 35.59 "
This rate of progress, especially since 1820, is owing, in part,
to immigration from foreign countries