THE ANCIENT ARABIANS.
south of Spain, for the space of two centuries, in full
vigor. Abdalrahman fixed the seat of his government at
Cordova, and made it a place of the utmost splendor and
magnificence. Spain's conqueror, satisfied with the sov¬
ereignty of the country, left the Goths, who had long
been masters of Spain, in possession of their property,
laws, and religion. And by the marriage of Abdallah,
the Moor, with the widow of the Gothic king, the two
nations became united. In A. D. 732, the Moors pene¬
trated from Spain into France, and defeated the duke of
Aquitain. The siege of Constantinople by the Moors
occurred A. D. 672. Their fleet passed through the un¬
guarded channel of the Hellespont, and disembarked
their troops seven miles from the city. But after a thirty
years' war, and the loss of 30,000 Moslems, they were
compelled to relinquish the enterprise. And by a treaty
between the two empires, ' the Faithful' were reduced
to submit to the payment of a heavy annual tribute. This
badge of servitude was however soon shaken off, and the
succeeding emperors were unable to enforce it.
Jerusalem was taken by the Saracens, or followers of
Mahomet, A. D. 637.
Alexandria, in Egypt, is taken by the Saracens, and
the grand library there burnt, by order of Omar, their
caliph or prince, A. D. 640.
The Caliph Omar, the third in succession from Mo¬
hammed, reduced Jerusalem under his subjection. This
Omar was afterwards assassinated at Jerusalem, in 643.
The Saracens continued masters of Jerusalem till the
year 1099, when it was taken by the Crusaders, under
Godfrey of Bouillon. They founded a new kingdom, of
which Jerusalem was the capital, and which lasted
eighty-eight years, under nine kings. At last this king¬
dom was utterly ruined by Saladin ; and though the
Christians once more obtained possession of the city,
they were again obliged to relinquish it. In 1217, the
Saracens were expelled by the Turks, who have ever
since continued in possession of it.
Seventeen times has Jerusalem been taken and pil¬
laged; millions of men have been slaughtered within its
walls. No other city has experienced such a fate. This