latter six characters are varied from their primitives, only
by their points, in appearance; and only by a gutteral, or.
aspirate, in sound.
The Arabians use five orthographical points for the gov¬
ernment of their characters. Hamra, placed on the letters
Alif, Waw, and Ya, doubles the vowel: Wesla, or Ousla,
is put over Alif, to indicate that its own sound is merged
in that ofthe succeeding letter. Midda is placed on Alif,
to render it long; and it is also employed as a mark, or
The Saracens, or Moors from Arabia, brought into Eu¬
rope the figures in Arithmetic, and the Letters of the Al¬
phabet, about 991 years A. C.
THE WORD NEGRO.
Negro is derived from the Latin term niger — mean¬
The following terms and definitions are in the Ameri¬
can edition of Dr. Walker's Dictionary.
Moor — a marsh, a fen ; a negro.
Marsh — a fen, a bog, a swamp; a plant.
Moorish — fenny, marshy.
Negro — blackmoor.
In Dr. Johnson's Dictionary — American edition, by
Rev. Joseph Hamilton, M. A., 1810 — we find these
words thus defined:
Black — dark, cloudy, mournful, wicked.
Black — a negro, the dark color, mourning.
Moor — a negro, marsh, fen, bog.
Moorish or Moory — marshy, fenny.
Negro — a blackmoor, (a Moor.)
In the Dictionary for schools, by Dr. Webster,
American edition, we find these words thus defined:
Negro, an African by birth, or a descendant of one
of full blood.
Moor, a black man, a marsh.
Marsh, low ground.
Negro, a blackmoor, a slave, a mean wretch.
Moor, a black, marsh, watery ground.
Marsh, a fen, a bog, a swamp, watery ground.
In Dr. Webster's definition of the complexion of the