Africa and the American Negro
Hallenga, speak each a dialect of its own. Commonly they are known as
Nubians, but this name is more properly applied to their neighbors on the
banks of the Nile, who are of Negro extraction and who speak a language of
nigritic structure. The Bisharin are pastoral and nomadic. They have all
adopted Islam, and followed the Mahdi in his revolt.
The Danakil or Dankali, between Massawa and Obokh, are Hamitic and
Pagan, but claim to be Arabs and Mohammedans. Their principal dialects
are Saho and Afar.
Between the gulf of Aden and the equator, the eastern Horn of Africa is in
the possession of the numerous tribes of Somals who are Hamitic by language
and by descent, and Mohammedan by faith. In the North they are mixed
with Arab blood, and with Negro blood in the South. Owing to this they
vary much in color and form. Naturally jovial and sociable, they are fiercely
opposed to foreign intrusion, and cordially hate their neighbors and kinsmen,
the heathen Oroma or Galla. They tend their herds of camels, horses, oxen
and sheep, while their limited agriculture is left to domestic slaves.
The Galla, whose number is estimated at 3,000,000, and who dwell between
the Juba river and Albert Nyanza, are so called by their enemies, the Somal.
'They call themselves Oroma or Ilmorna, that is, "men." In race mixed
Hamitic and Negro, in language and customs purely Hamitic, in religion partly
Christian, partly Mohammedan, but mostly heathen, they are brave, intelli¬
gent, and industrious. Their governmant is largely republican, and they keep
no slaves. The royal families of Uganda and Karagwe were originally Gallasof
the Huma tribe.
Both Galla and Somal have preserved their languages remarkably pure
from foreign loan-words; so much so that more archaic and primitive forms
are found in them than even in hieroglyphic Egyptian.
The Egyptian, Berber and Cushitic languages which we have just considered
are all so homogeneous in structure and word-store that they evidently form
one family, derived from one mother-tongue.
In religion the Hamites are mostly Mohammedan. About one-quarter of a
million Kopts in Egypt and several tribes in Abyssinia are Christians , 50,000
Falasha are Jews, and a portion of the Galla as also several tribes in or about
Abyssinia are heathen.
Everywhere, except in lower Egypt, the Hamites are rather nomadic and
pastoral, broken up in petty tribes, and jealous of their tribal independence.
No race, perhaps, is at the present time so little evangelized by Protestant
Brown races are found in the Sudan, in southwest Africa and in Madagascar.
They have nothing in common except the color. Nor is their brown color of
the same tinge, some being light brown, others dark brown.
The brown people of the Sudan are probably a mixture of Hamites and
Negroes; the Hottentots, Bushmen and Pygmies differ from the other brown
peoples of Africa in structure, stature and physiognomy ; and the brown Mala-
gassy of the eastern and central portion of the great' Island of Madagascar
are Malays who have likely immigrated from Sumatra; at least linguistic
affinity seems to indicate this.