12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE TRUSTEES
schools and schools for secondary instruction, 81; schools
known as colleges and universities, 44. There are two schools
for the deaf and dumb and blind. A few higher grade schools
for colored people are located in the Northern States. It
should be added that the professional schools—whether of
theology, law or medicine-—are for the most part departments
of some of the colleges or universities.
In the South the public school term does not average more
than four months, and comparatively few colored children
attend school when the public school term expires. This is
especially true in the rural districts, where the mass of the
colored population is found. It may be doubted whether the
average attendance of pupils is as much as three months for
each school year.
The great need of these schools is competent teachers. This
is too obvious to need argument. It would be difficult to
exaggerate a statement as to the inferior quality of most of
the teaching done in the public schools for colored children.
With exceptions so few that they are not appreciable in any
consideration of the subject that may come before this Board,
the colored children are taught by colored teachers—most of
them being women. A few of these teachers are well quali-
fied—enough of them to show that this race can, with adequate
advantages, furnish competent teachers for its children. The
great majority of these colored teachers are very ignorant
In the higher grade schools most of the teachers are white
people—with very rare exceptions from the Northern States.
Most of the Southern State governments have recognized
the need of competent teachers for the colored children, and
have made some provisions for preparing them. In most
cases the States have made appropriations supplemental to the