76 .A SCHOOL HISTORY OF THE
were lost to the British, while the American loss
was seven killed and six wounded. There were
over four hundred Negroes in this battle, and they
occupied " no mean place and did no mean service."
The British had a battalion of Negroes from the
Island of San Domingo in this battle. The idea
of fortifying the city with cotton is said to have been
the suggestion of a slave who was a native African,
and learned this mode of defence from the Arabs.
Mr. D. Lee Child, in a letter to a friend, states
that the famous cotton breast-works, recognized the
world over as a stroke of genius on the part of
Gen. Jackson, was the suggestion of a colored man,
a native African. He gives some data from a Por¬
tuguese manuscript to prove that this mode of de¬
fence is in practice among the native Africans, who
thus defend their wives and children against the
NEGROES IN THE NAVY OF l8l2.
Tl 3re seemed to be no discrimination against
any class of citizens joining our navy; nor is there
now. About one-fifth of the marines were Negroes.
That they did valuable service is testified to by
numerous commanders. Read what Commander
Nathaniel Shaler of the " private armed " schooner
" Governor Tompkins " says, in a letter dated—